Youth Development at a Glance
Progressive development of posture, grasping and walking.
|Sensiry-motor stage: from reflexes, constitution of patterns of actions combining perceptions and movements to reach and aim.||Elementary emotional reactions states of satisfactions and dissatisfaction.
Pleasure associated with sucking (oral stage).
Desired object: mother's breast
3 months: smiling response to human faces.
|No differentiation between self and others. Immediated imitation.||No awareness of self.|
|6-9 months||Standing upright.||Action games.||Recognition of mother.||Anguish and fear of strangers.|
|10-12 months||First steps.||Delayed imitation.|
|2 years||Cleanliness (sphincter control)||Mental representations of action patterns.
Appearance of symbolic games.
Aquisition of notions of objects, space, time and the relation between cause and effect.
|Anal stage: affective value attached to sphincter control.||Appearance of symbolic function (ability to represent absent objects).
First words (20 words at age 2)
|Appearance of “no”, sign of construction of personal identity.|
|3 years||Acceptance of regulations and ieals promoted by one's parents; confusion between the paternal image and the concept of God.||Growth slows down.||Genital stage: Interest in genitals; masturbation; curiosity about differences between the sexes.||Egocentric speech; collective monologues; interest in one's appearance; shyness.||Identification with the parent of the same sex. (Oedipus complex) Creation of “Superego”.|
|4 years||Anthropomorphic, magical an egocentric religiosity.||Affective identification with parents based on confidence and admiration.|
|5-7 years||Notion of good and evil, right and wrong linked to religion.||Precision in movements and balance aquired.||Intuitive thought (affirmation without demontration).||“Latency period”: sexual energy ariented towards other goals.||Development of speech (2,500 words).
Rules considered intangible and determined by adults.
“Moral realism”: mistakes judged by damage caused; intentions ignored.
Acceptance of moral norms.
|7-10 years||Acceptance of family's spiritual heritage.
Conformity to conventional morality.
Orientation towards “law” and “order”.
At ease with one's body.
Development of the capacity for logical reasoning on concrete data.
Notion of conservation, ability to classify, make series and count.
|Latency period: emotional balance.
Affective attachment which goes beyond the family circle.
Adoption of different roles; ability to imagine oneself in another person's situation.
The child tries to adapt to a group and be appreciated.
|Conformity to the group.
By adaptiong to a wide variety of situations (school, groups), the child discovers him/herself as a multi-faceted personality.
He/she gains a deeper understanding of him/herself.
|10-11 years (girls)
11-12 years (boys)
|Developemnt of moral autonomy.
Acceptance of moral principles as a way od sharing rights and responsibilties within a group.
|Onset of puberty: acceleration in growth (firstly height, then weight); clumsiness.
Appearance of secondary sexual characteristics. Ill at ease with one's body.
|Stage of concrete logical operations.
Development of the capacity for logical reasoning on abstract data.
|Awakening of sexual impulses with the onset of bilogical puberty.
Strong but confusing emotions.
Need for friendship.
Need to assert oneself as an individual.
Identification with heroes.
|Childhood rules and regulations called into question.
Ability to create new rules through mutual consent.
Groups established for the purpose of common activities.
|Period of opposition and rejection of previous identifications.|
|13-15 years||Childhood religious practices called into question.
Use of symbols to express spiritual meaning.
Interest in ideologies and religions.
Notion of contract and democratic acceptance of the law.
|Sexual maturity.||Stage of formal logical operations reached (reasoning through hypotheses and deductions).||Awakening of the Oedipus complex; development of sexual identity.
Adolescent crisis, idealism and depression.
Age of friendship.
Attraction towards the opposite sex (earlier among girls).
|Period of social restructuring.
Rebellion against authority.
Efforts to define personal moral values.
More closely-knit groups formed, based on mutual trust.
Search for a common identity.
|Crisis of identity.
Search for new models for developing one's identity.
|15-16 years||Acceptance of universal values (Human rights).||Solidarity with peers. Worries, intense excitement.
Need for security, success and accomplishment.
|Individual awarenedd of principles (personal code of honour).||Structuring of one's self image. Development of personal autonomy.|
|17-20+ years||Orientation towards universal ethics.||Recognition of enrichment due to accepting individual differneces.
Problem of social and professional integration.
|Confirmation of personal choices.
Search for a social role.